Hdd rom chip transplant
        

Because of the large storage space such as video, ROM is much larger than RAM. Upon payment, our engineers open up your damaged EDR module and transplant its ROM chip into a surrogate module. I've been searching on the internet and found that the firmware that's on the broken PCB should be moved to the ROM on the new PCB. You can also watch the video with english subtitles : Caution : swapping PCBs only solves electrical and physical failures . We call this Most HDD boards have the BIOS (ROM or NVRAM chip) which includes the unique data to access the HDD system area. System BIOS supports adding or replacing hard disk drive [HDD] with a larger drive or a solid-state drive [SSD] system ROM chip stores the BIOS for these. can be also used to handle with other chips within cases of laptop repair, desktop repair, Home appliances repair and even car repair. its called cmos battery. This chip is where all the storage of the device is located. If the BIOS information is not Aug 6, 2011 This is not true, a PCB swap will NOT work on most modern drives, you MUST transfer the firmware chip as it contains drive specific data. Your System Bios information is Stored in a ROM. How to transfer firmware from old PCB onto a new one, reprogram it, and take proper steps to fully 15th December 2018 A few months ago a couple of Dodonpachi Dai Ou Jou PCBs came in for repair. Often this will be enough but sometimes incompatibilities in the ROM will require a matching ROM chip transplant. The picture on this page is an example of an Intel 8048 made by NEC and is an example of an EPROM chip. Besides HDD PCB ROM chip, High-speed USB Programmer Pro. Feb 08, 2017 · ROM is a Read Only Memory. Is it a straight forward operation of replacing the ROM chip of a new PCB with the one from the damaged HDD? I have successfully replaced the BIOS chip on the PCB by the original and it has worked perfectly. U12 is the chip you need, just transfer the content of it into donor sata pcb. Conventional mobile phone forensics wisdom has long assumed that a full mobile phone memory chip transplant was impossible. How to find the correct donor board 2. hdd rom chip transplantMar 15, 2013 In this video we show and explain how to swap a dead hard drive circuit board, also called a PCB. Data which can not be changed by you or you can only read that data is stored in ROM. There are two types of ROM chips used in PCs: Mask-ROM (only on very old motherboards that cannot be updated by software) and Flash-ROM (on almost all …The two terms Hard disk and RAM are similar ones which are considered same but are different in the working and functions. BIOS component information - Hard drive. is the most cost-effective flash programmer hdd repair and data recovery engineers can use to read and edit the HDD PCB ROM chips when wrong or incompatible ROM contents are written to the ROM chip and then the PCB is dead. So we have to work on the chip directly. Dec 09, 2014 · www. An EPROM chip is distinguishable by a small quartz crystal (not glass) circle window that exposes the chip so that can be reprogrammed. Examine your hard drive circuit board to see if a ROM chip exists. How to transfer firmware from old PCB onto  PCB Swap Data Recovery Attempt On Western Digital Hard Drive www. I'm going to do that with a soldering iron. At 74 years my hand is not the steadiest any more yet I managed. ? Donor Western Digital Hard Drives and Western Digital PCBs (Circuit Boards, Electronics Boards, etc) for Repair and Data Recovery Purposes. it is permanently stored on one or two ROM ICs installed on the system board Cmos setup information are stored in ROM bios chip. In the case of iOS, the chips can range anywhere from 4 GiB to 512 GiB. I'm very lucky and found a HDD with the exact same PCB. The hard drive PCB board BIOS is either in one or two independent SMD memory chip on the board or integrated into the PCB board Main IC (normally the biggest square chip on the board). com or call  Hard Drive PCB Replacement Guide - Donor Drives www. ). System BIOS supports adding or replacing optical drives system ROM chip stores the BIOS for these. Usually, the ROM is 8-pin (4-pins on 2 sides) chip, often marked as U12 on Western Digital or U6, U5 on Hitachi. Chapter 6 BIOS (220-901) 36 terms May 26, 2017 · (1) On the mobile phone, ROM is used to store data, such as system programs, applications, audio, video and documents. You will likely find a number starting with 25 on the chip. Feb 05, 2016 · Re: Replacing the ROM chip on a hard drive PCB « Reply #22 on: February 05, 2016, 12:27:32 pm » That "beeping" noise is the head arm actuator trying to move. You can copy saved data that is stored on the PlayStation 4 system to a USB storage device. This is due to incompatibilities in the extended ROM. (2) RAM is also called running memory,NAND, so called because of its use of NOT AND (NAND) gates, is a type of non-volatile memory chip that is used in all iDevices. Basically, hdd PCB is the brains of the hard drive that all machinery are closely dependent upon. You need to change the ROM chip from original board to the replacement board, in order to make the replacement board compatible with your HDD when you swap burned PCB if your PCB have ROM chip. In this video we show and explain how to swap a dead hard drive circuit board, also called a PCB. Sichern Sie den Herd mit einem Gitter, damit Ihr Kind nicht auf heiße Platten fassen oder Töpfe mit heißem Inhalt auf sich herabziehen kann. If you opened the top cover of the hard drive outside of a cleanroom environment, then, if you wish to persist with DIY, and as long as you didn't touch the platters, you can purge the loose contaminants from the platters as follows. While RAM uses transistors to turn on or off access to a capacitor at each intersection, ROM uses a diode to connect the lines if the value is 1. Thanks once more and kind regards! Reinhard -Australia . Our Dell Latitude E5450 memory upgrades are manufactured to Dell’s original specification to assure compatibility. There is usually only one 8-pin chip on a hard drive circuit board. High-speed USB Programmer Pro. I think I've found the right ROM chip to move, but I'm unsure. Wanting to be someone else is a waste of who you are WD Hard Drive PCB's BIOS/ROM Chip. Now the PCB is broken (HDD does not spin up anymore. For Example: Wester Digital PCB 2060-701675-004. is one ideal ROM editor and writer by ROM chip to fix the dead PCB cases with dead ROM by soldering the external ROM chip. When a WD hard drive fails, in most cases of mechanical failures, the ROM chip on the U12 is the chip you need, just transfer the content of it into donor sata pcb. RAM is a Random access memory. If you have PC3000 or MRT tools (and if patient pcb is still alive) you can copy rom content via serial connection (without using soldering station or eprom programmer) and then write it into donor sata pcb. When a WD hard drive fails, in most cases of mechanical failures, the ROM chip on the Mar 15, 2013Examine your hard drive circuit board to see if a ROM chip exists. But where the columns and rows intersect, ROM chips are fundamentally different from RAM chips. Now mainstream mobile phones are 64GB or 128GB space. It will take some time to encrypt the drive, but on an SSD it should go pretty quickly. There aren't many 8-pin chips on hard drive circuit boards, often only 1. This is called a Buck Regulator. 확인과정에서 도난 카드의 사용이나 타인 명의의 주문등 정상적인 주문이 아니라고 판단될 …Search the history of over 351 billion web pages on the Internet. Runs all special Chips. This is an article regarding swapping hard drive platters. Long story short, I need to transplant a rom chip to a new PCB for a hard drive. Visit us at acsdata. If you prefer to do this yourself (transplant an 8 pin ROM chip), just let us know by emailing us or mention it in the comments during checkout. Some hard drive such as Seagate models (except Barracuda V, 7200. Now the PCB is broken (HDD does not spin up anymore. Jan 23, 2013 #11 BIOS is the 8pins (4 pins on each sides) chip with 25P05VP、25P10VP、25F512、25F1024、25F1024AN、SST25VF512、SST25VF010, etc. Early PCs used a ROM BIOS, but PCs today use a flash memory BIOS because it can be updated in place. I'm going to do that with a soldering iron. it may well be the PCB and not the motor. It's a chip soldered to the main board in the phone. Video: Hard Drive ROM Chip Swap/Replacement (Video) This is due to incompatibilities in the extended ROM. On the chip, you will likely find a On PCs, for example, all code to control hardware devices, such as keyboards, is normally executed in a special ROM chip called the BIOS ROM. WD Hard Drive PCB's BIOS/ROM Chip Sometimes if the PCB is missing the BIOS chip, maybe the PCB's BIOS information is integrated on the Main Controller IC. We offer donor Seagate hard drives and Seagate PCBs (Circuit Boards, Electronics Boards, etc) for Repair and Data Recovery Purposes. The first attempt by the previous company was I currently have a 40GB PS3 which I am going to put a 250GB HDD into. Under Media Type, select “Hard Disk Drive (HDD)”. hard drive PCB ROM chip flash data recovery ideas-how to work with big size tsop48 flash chip TOSHIBA MQ01ABF050H SSHD data recovery PCB G3461A how to fix Hitachi HTS543232L9SA00 hard drive damaged PCBWhat Does ROM Do? The main functions of a ROM include storing programs and software instructions in electronic devices as well as performing major input and output tasks. The leaflet included with the replacement board said that chip transfer was not necessary for this drive type; this was also the opinion of fzabkar on this forum, in answer to my question. but sometimes incompatibilities in the ROM will require a matching ROM chip transplant. I'm very lucky and found a HDD with the exact same PCB. hdd-parts. 7 and U7 models) still respond well to PCB swaps if you can match the firmware and configuration code exactly. They had been purchased as non-working boards. When this happens it”s necessary to match the code (shown below) on the ROM chip from both drives, or if an identical spare can not be found – transplant it from the faulty drive”s PCB onto the new PCB. If the BIOS information is not compatible with your HDD, there is no way to read the HDD…Apr 12, 2019 · As for WD5000AAKS-22V1A0 hard drive, the PCB belongs to 1640 series and when the ROM chip is missing or burnt, it is at high success rate with DFL WD firmware repair tools to rebuild the original ROM and get the drive alive for recovery. and it was maintain by a 3. Oct 23, 2012 19 0 10,510 0. Magneto-resistive heads gave the 9345 an advantage over its competitors, as the bits could be stored more densely. flyer07 Post 9 Trying to install a new hard 500gb, but all i see no matter how you partition it is one(1)drive this size 13,1702 using windows xp. 5″ HDD/SSD or ssd drive); External Interface: 7+15 22Pin SATA (for Laptop’s Motherboard); 4. This process is ALWAYS necessary to ensure compatibility for this model: your board contains UNIQUE information about your hard drive. Jul 27, 2012 · Having a hard drive die without warning will ruin anyone's day. Louise said: . The following carries no guarantees, and definitely voids and nullifies If you prefer to do this yourself (transplant an 8 pin ROM chip), just let us know by emailing us or mention it in the comments during checkout. But the memory chip seems to be fine. If you are not sure about what to do or how to do it, ship your entire hard drive to us with the original PCB for a free quote for data recovery. . : 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher EducationMar 23, 2019 · i see no one here can fix this hard drive. You need to verify your chips datasheet to correctly identify the pin-out to the SPI programmer. 13/8/2016, 12:34. The Guru's ROM dump news How to dump CD's and HDD's; The next step is to simply find another TC0140SYT chip on a junk Taito PCB and transplant it and You basically quickly swap the IDE cable from the Xbox to HDD to HDD -> PC. Full Answer. If I was to later get a fabled 80GB machine (with PS2 compatibility etc. Forensics Case Files: Chip Off, Chip On, The Chipper! July 13, 2017 our engineers commonly make delicate ROM chip A ROM chip transplant is usually required, please do your own research regarding compatibility and how to perform a ROM chip transplant. But idk if your drive is unlocked at the point of it being stuck or not. tomsfans Honorable. com/dms-memory/dell/latitude-e5450. I think 70GB on a typical hard drive would be a couple hours, so it should be less than that. 4. Before doing the ROM transplantation I kindly request data recovery experts comment on this!!!:-) You do not have the required permissions to view the files attached to this post. htmDell Latitude E5450 memory upgrades from Data Memory Systems are guaranteed to be 100% compatible. I've been searching on the internet and found that the firmware that's on the broken PCB should be moved to the ROM on the new PCB. com Tutorial: how to fix hard drive by swap the PCB board 1. How to Swap Hard Disk Drive Platters. Then, fill in as much additional information as you can about the hard drive repair. The benefits of this are as follows: There are a number of ways you can achieve this, but the following method is desirable as …Discuss: HP EliteBook 8470p - 14" - Core i5 3320M - Windows 7 Pro 64-bit - 4 GB RAM - 320 GB HDD Series Sign in to comment. Some possible way to recover data in WD SATA HDD, where the PCB is damaged by improper handling of inexperienced hands. Similar to RAM, ROM chips (Figure 1) contain a grid of columns and rows. ) could I then put the 250GB directly into it without having to do a fresh format? Or is the data on the HDD tied to a specific console? Cheers, Suman A ROM chip transplant is usually required, please do your own research regarding compatibility and how to perform a ROM chip transplant. I would buy a new working iphone and would like to change the Hynix H2JTDG2MBR in this phone with my old one to recover my data and to have a new working phone by the the side. Why the PCB board firmware (BIOS) transfer is a …Most HDD boards have the BIOS (ROM or NVRAM chip) which includes the unique data to access the HDD system area. A newsletter a day keeps the FOMO at bay. I was able to retrieve complete information from the hard disk. The HDD appears in Device Manager but I can't navigate to it. If any one of these parts is damaged, then the hard drive will stop functioning. However, this chip is slower than the general-purpose RAM that comprises main memory. 8/5(33)Dell Latitude E5450 Memory Upgrades from Data Memory …https://www. The ROM is usually an 8-pin chip (4-pins on 2 sides) marked as U12 on Western Digital, or U6 or U5 on Hitachi. I spent some time digging and it turned out that all modern hard drive PCBs have unique ROM. You should exchange the Main Controller IC to let the HDD be recognized. ExtremeTech. Embedded in a chip (or two) on the PCB is “adaptive data” that is unique to the hard drive it's attached to. ), then replacing the PCB board will get your hard drive spinning again. We were able to provide both active and deleted data to our client. That way it is possible to read the drive contents. 7mm Suppliers: CHIPAL Original Foxconn Chip PATA IDE to SATA 3. You can find a electric shop help you. Introduction. It is giving re-initialise error. 7 and U7 - Contacted DonorDrives; they said a ROM chip transplantation was necessary. The aim of a PCB swap is data recovery, or hard disk repair, The buyer is responsible for finding the right PCB for their Hard Drive, You will benefit from a 14-day return period, In most cases, you should transfer the BIOS before you swap hard drive PCB, in order to make the replacement board compatible with your HDD. a aa aaa aaaa aaacn aaah aaai aaas aab aabb aac aacc aace aachen aacom aacs aacsb aad aadvantage aae aaf aafp aag aah aai aaj aal aalborg aalib aaliyah aall aalto aam Kochen Sie auf den hinteren Herdplatten. 0 battery. First, determine your PCB number, wich depends on your hard drive brand. Now I am wondering if it is possible to unsolder the Hynix H2JTDG2MBR NAND Memory Chip and transfer it to a new Iphone. References to match when looking for a donor drive is the full model number, for example MK 1017GAP and PCB printed number, for example, B36021242013-A. Toshiba hard drive donor match guide. ). The bios chip is damaged too, the plates are fine. We are committed to providing fast, efficient, and affordable software solutions that set new standards in the software development industry. If the BIOS information is not We know PCB includes 2 parts: hardware (components) and firmware (data in the bios chip); The firmware includes HDD's unique configuration data to access Myth: I can swap the PCB from my bad hard drive with a good hard drive's PCB If you don't transfer the contents of the circled ROM chip (which contains data The PCB is the 'brains' of the hard drive, but also supplies power. The reason for this is the PCB's ROM information. donordrives. You need to make sure the clip makes a solid connection to avoid misreads. ROM is more commonly referred to as firmware or read-only memory. If there is a chance that another and a potentially The following advice applies in the general case, but not in the case of a head crash, as is the OP's situation. Go to the next page where you will then be prompted to …Western Digital Hard Drive PCB swapping replacement guide By Effective Electronics LLC Hard Drives and Hard Drive PCB's · Updated about 7 years ago Swapping the printed circuit board (PCB) on Western Digital drives requires matching 2 things “EXACTLY” for your best chance of success without having to swap the ROM chip. It certainly ruined mine -- but here's what I learned about data recovery in the process of trying to fix my own hardware. Other drives, like mine, incorporate the ROM into the controller. Make sure all of the chip’s legs are lined up with their corresponding socket positions and gently push down on the top of the chip until its legs begin to slide into in the socket. Nov 21, 2018 · Rather than running everything from an SD card, it can be desirable to store and run ROMs from an external USB drive. Just enter your email and we'll take care of the rest:결제정보 : 고액결제의 경우 안전을 위해 카드사에서 확인전화를 드릴 수도 있습니다. 5 GB HDAs. What is not revealed, as of the initial reports from Kaspersky Labs® is the exact location of the firmware hack, the ROM or the Service Area modules. HDDzone. Make sure your chip is supported in Flashrom which is the program you will be using to talk to the chip. If your hard drive has a mechanical failure and you need to find a donor drive in order to transplant the platters, the heads, PCB board, disk motor or any other component that has gone faulty on it, we have created a short hard drive donor match guide to help you purchase the correct hard drive. Although these ROM types have different functions, all are composed of non-volatile chipsCheap pata ide to sata, Buy Quality 2nd hdd directly from China hdd caddy 12. The chip I remember being replaced often is usually one that takes a higher DC voltage and drops it to a lower DC voltage. and see if i can work out what the problem is. ROM which contains read only data are generally attached to motherboards and ROM memory is different/seperate than your hard disk or of your RAM. One had major damage and corrosion on the large video chip. com - Find a Matching Hard Drive PCB - Welcome to HDDZone hard drive pcb circuit boards supplier! Worldwide free shipping! HDD PCB's BIOS/ROM Chip (Seagte We dialed in our methodology, and successfully completed a chip-off-chip-on procedure. I think I've found the right ROM chip to move, but I'm unsure. This is not a procedure for the technically inept or faint hearted. First, see if this is nessesary for your hard drive by looking at donor matching guide, then see if ROM chip does exist. Jul 27, 2012 · Some hard drives have an externally mounted ROM/NVRAM chip that can be removed and soldered on to a new PCB. How to Swap HDD PCBs If you want to contact a partner repairer, here is the list. it's back to the store for a refund, or i guess that no one read this. 0 2nd HDD Caddy 12. How ROM Works. The way to update the motherboard ROM depends on the type of memory chip used in your PC. ; Page 2 The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. If your hard drive has failed and you need to find a donor drive to do a PCB, head stack or platter transplant, this hard drive donor match guide will help. The transplant was a complete success, all 50 GB of it. Internal Interface: 7+6 13Pin SATA (for 2. You are good man and a good company to deal with. Hard Drive ROM Chip Swap/Replacement (Video) The main purpose of the hard drive PCB is to deliver power to the hard drive, maintain velocity and rotation of the spindle, and manage all inside operations through its firmware. For Toshiba hard drive PCB board replacement. The trick is to make sure you clone the original MjM Data Recovery Ltd Reviews which involved a rom chip transplant onto a donor PCB before I approached MJM. You can only remove it by desoldering it from the board in a soldering oven. If the PCB is the only damaged part of the hard drive (due to power surge, overheating etc. The hard drive consists of a few basic parts: motor, platter, disk head and the controller board (PCB). Hard drive PCB boards Now the PCB is broken (HDD does not spin up anymore. i did look into asking seagate to recover it. I have been told it will cost £25 for them to send it back by courier or for free they will send it untracked which I suspect means they will not send it at all!Page 1 Hardware and Software Guide HP Compaq Notebook Series Document Part Number: 364598-001 January 2005 This guide explains how to identify and use notebook hardware features, including connectors for external devices, and provides settings and procedures for managing notebook power and security. 1 one so you get a chip + clock generator to transplant too), a bit more expensive than this cart perhaps, but in my Microsoft Surface Pro mSATA SSD Upgrade: Dangerous but Successful managed to successfully transplant a 240GB Intel SSD 525 in his Surface Pro. NAND, so called because of its use of NOT AND (NAND) gates, is a type of non-volatile memory chip that is used in all iDevices. Saved us much How do I transfer the HDD internal chip/instruction set w/o cracking case open? of replacing the ROM chip. as suggested that was a guess, but i shall take a look it over this coming week and read though this thread and watch the videos. New SNES cart. BIOS chip replacement services: Orient the notched end of the chip so that it aligns with the notch in the socket. com/pcb-replacement-guideMost hard drive circuit boards possess ROM, NV-RAM, or a controller chip that holds unique data required to access the hard drive system area. datamemorysystems. Because the hard drive PCB board is damaged, we cannot work from the port of the PCB board. This “adaptive data” includes information about the hard drive's heads, its firmware version, any bad sectors in the drive's service area, and more. - Replacing surface mount parts requires special tools that I don't have. EDR modules are designed with a simple eight-pin ROM chip that holds all of the relevant data. My hopes are it's a PCB fault and the magnetic disks aren't damaged. The image I'm attaching is the rom chip I need unfortunately IWD USB to SATA PCB ROM chip transplant. R-Studio now provides disk recovery recovery features at the hardware level of hard disk drives, based on its integration with the DeepSpar Disk Imager (DDI). For Seagate hard disk drive families – Barracuda V, 7200. It is more complex to replace the Main Chip IC than exchange the BIOS chip. The five main types of ROM are ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and flash memory. Sometimes if the PCB is missing the BIOS chip, maybe the PCB's BIOS information is integrated on the Main Controller IC. Some Western Digital PCBs have the different types BIOS. one of our electrical engineers to carefully transplant the ROM chips. This is written on your product page : With ROM Chip = No I used to only have one method : physically transplant the BIOS microchip from the old PCBIf your hard drive has failed and you need to find a donor drive to do a PCB, head stack or platter transplant, this hard drive donor match guide will help. Codenamed "Sawmill," it was the first hard disk drive to use magneto-resistive heads. 5" SSD Case Hard Disk Enclosure for Laptop CD-ROM Enjoy Free Shipping Worldwide! Limited Time Sale Easy Return. i guess without really getting into the hdd. After moving the old memory chip to the new circuit board it worked perfectly to recover our hard drive. Be respectful, keep it civil and stay on topic. Video: Hard Drive ROM Chip Swap/Replacement (Video) 0 T. 7mm for 2. Your only chance is to find a similar Philips model from the same year, and transplant its burner into yours. Short for read-only memory, ROM is a type of memory storage system that can only be read and not modified. Most HDD boards have the BIOS (ROM or NVRAM chip) which includes the unique data to access the HDD system area. You can also copy saved games to the cloud if you are a PlayStation Plus subscriber. (This is a precisely temperature-controlled device: a kitchen oven won't do. Cheap. The customer’s data was intact! We used Cellebrite Physical Analyzer to perform full physical, file system, and logical extractions from the chip-off-chip-on’d phone. To learn more about the book this website supports, please visit its Information Center. But we did it! Recovering Data from a Dropped Seagate Barracuda External Hard Drive July 22, 2017. Nov 13, 2018 · Hardware manufactures use EPROM when it may be needed that the data contained on the EPROM needs to be changed. Mar 29, 2017 Recovering Data from a Hard Drive After a Power Surge One of the chips on the PCB is a ROM chip, stuffed with drive-unique factory calibrations. Jul 22, 2016 · The firmware on a standard hard disk drive is located in two locations: 1) the ROM chip located on the PCB, and 2) a physical location on the platters of the hard disk as we describe. com/youtube?q=hdd+rom+chip+transplant&v=KiLtCHbpPX8 Sep 18, 2015 If you are trying to repair your hard drive by swapping the PCB, this video shows you why that may not work. ask. If your Toshiba hard drive requires a PCB board replacement, a chip transfer will be required. Hi, I have received a WD my passport drive today for recovery. This article, therefore, gives a proper understanding of the two types for people to get a clearer idea. You can find a more detailed explanation here. The 2nd Hard Disk Drive …Feb 04, 2013 · Afterward you can re-enable bitlocker and it will encrypt the drive. To back up saved data, you must update the system software and be signed in to PSN. All of our Dell Latitude E5450 memory upgrades are tested here in our test lab and backed by a lifetime warranty. The first model of this 5 ¼-inch disk drive had two 1 GB hard disk assemblies (HDAs) and the second model had two 1. There wouldn't be much point, however: the 3305 was a dvd-only recorder with no HDD (so there's no urgency or need for a new burner to copy any videos trapped on a hard drive). hdd rom chip transplant ) Even if you did manage to desolder it safely, the chip itself isn't a lot of use to you. rom bios (ROM B asic I nput O utput S ystem) The BIOS in a PC stored on a ROM chip. A+ series, A+ Certification, Mike Meyers, A+, CompTIA Exams. The chip on the board is very small (5mm x 5mm) and has a very strange number, probably re-badge by some manufacturer to hide it's identity. Fortunately I came across these blogs before I parted with any money to fields however they still have my hard drive. Place the system upside-down on a flat Welcome Offering my expertise to diagnose, repair and recover your hard drive This information has been gathered over my 20+ years as data recovery engineer. It is not to be confused with RAM chips, which are used to store temporary data on a computer